Archive for November, 2017

Access to food ‘precarious’ for Syrians stranded near Jordan

October 31, 2017

AMMAN, Jordan (AP) — The U.N. humanitarian chief called for immediate “life-saving” access to 50,000 displaced Syrians stranded on the sealed border with Jordan, as aid officials reported a sharp drop in food supplies in the remote desert camp since Syrian government forces advanced toward the area in the summer.

Black market prices for food have soared and malnutrition is on the rise among young children in the Rukban camp, the officials said. Mark Lowcock, the U.N. official, told the U.N. Security Council in a Syria briefing that a long-term solution is needed for getting aid to Rukban.

He said that “the best approach is to find a solution from within Syria” — an apparent shift after U.N. agencies held months of largely unsuccessful talks with Jordan about access to the camp. Speaking to the Security Council after meetings with Jordanian officials on Monday, Lowcock said U.N. agencies are “straining every sinew” to find a way to deliver aid from Syria.

Jordan sealed its border with Syria in June 2016, after a cross-border car bomb by Islamic State extremists killed seven Jordanian border guards. The pro-Western kingdom has defended the closure, saying its security trumps humanitarian considerations, and that the attack underscored warnings that Rukban has been infiltrated by IS sympathizers.

The international community is reluctant to pressure Jordan, which is hosting a large number of refugees. In all, more than 5 million Syrians fled their country since 2011, including about 660,000 registered refugees in Jordan.

Jordan’s foreign minister told European Union diplomats last month that Syria and the international community, not Jordan, bear responsibility for Rukban. U.N. aid deliveries to Rukban from inside Syria would require permission from the government in Damascus and also pose safety risks for staff crossing front lines.

Since Jordan’s border closure, U.N. agencies have only carried out two distributions from Jordan, in addition to a partial one in June. At one point, food was hoisted by cranes from Jordan and dropped off near Rukban. A subsequent system of delivery, through a Jordanian contractor, has repeatedly broken down.

The recent deterioration in Rukban followed a temporary cease-fire for southwestern Syria in early July. As fighting ebbed in the southwest, Syrian government forces and their allies advanced in the southeast.

Commercial food shipments from other areas of Syria to Rukban dropped by about 70 percent since the Syrian government’s advances, said Firas Abdel Aziz, a Jordan-based activist for Jusoor al-Amal, a charity that operates in the camp.

The price of bread has doubled, sugar is up six-fold and the cost of rice has tripled, he said. Lowcock said that “as limited commercial supplies are reaching Rukban, access to food is precarious and the overall situation remains dire.” The situation will become more acute as winter approaches, he added.

While a long-term solution is needed, “immediate access to enable life-saving assistance for the civilian population is critical,” he said. A U.N.-run clinic continues to operate on Jordanian soil, several kilometers from Rukban, and receives 100 to 150 patients per day, said other aid officials who spoke on condition of anonymity because of ongoing talks with Jordan.

The population size of Rukban has fluctuated, said Abdel Aziz. In early September, residents of a smaller border tent camp, Hadalat, evacuated the area as Syrian troops advanced, with many fleeing to Rukban. Abdel Aziz said hundreds more families arrived recently from another flashpoint of fighting in Syria’s far east.

U.N. satellite images from late September indicated there are close to 10,000 shelters in the camp, an increase of 6.6 percent from three months earlier.

Associated Press writer Omar Akour in Amman, Jordan, contributed to this report.

Advertisements

Syrian refugees: 12,000 new Australians settle in to adopted home

29.10.2017 Sunday

By Rebecca Trigger

After escaping her war-torn hometown of Aleppo, Talar Anjer-Koushian threw herself into Australian life — going to university, securing a fulltime job, and now volunteering to help other refugees establish themselves in their adopted home.

Talar was one of 12,000 asylum seekers granted visas in Australia under a special humanitarian intake of Syrians and Iraqis, fleeing terrorism and civil war — all of whom have now arrived on our shores.

Ms Anjer-Koushian said the biggest challenge after arriving in Australia was going back to university — she’s studying a masters in International Development in her fourth language.

She also managed to land a fulltime job last week, but says for many other Syrians, securing employment remains their biggest concern.

“We want to work, we want to give back, we don’t like just taking and sitting and being lazy,” she said.

All of the extraordinary visas announced by the then-Abbott government in 2015 were granted by March this year, but the final families only arrived in the latter half of the year.

The special visas have been granted to people in UNHCR camps, but also to people forced to flee and shelter in urban communities in Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey.

‘We decided to leave, to have a life’

For Ms Anjer-Koushian, her life now is a stark contrast to what she was forced to leave behind.

Syria’s horrific civil war has left hundreds of thousands of people dead, fueled the rise of the Islamic State group, and caused the biggest asylum seeker crisis since the last World War.

Once a vibrant and thriving commercial center, Aleppo has seen industrial-scale devastation, buildings damaged beyond repair, and basic services to its people cut off.

“We had days that we didn’t have water, electricity, it wasn’t safe to go outside,” she said.

“Electricity was a celebration, so whenever we had electricity we used to wake up even if it was in the middle of the night, just to watch TV, and just enjoy the lights.”

She said the worry was constant, and it was always dangerous to leave your home.

“You get used to it, you get the skills that help you to live with the conditions that you are put under,” she said.

“But when it was enough … we just couldn’t tolerate it, and we decided to leave, and to have a life.”

‘It needs time’: Syrian-Iraq refugees put down roots

Ms Anjer-Koushian said while many of her fellow refugees will be grateful for the chance at a new life, they will need help to adjust to a completely new environment.

“They might get afraid people won’t be welcoming of them, so they won’t approach others,” she said.

“They will be closed and always questioning themselves, ‘are we good enough, are we OK to approach and to talk to others, and form friendships and meet other people?

“Although Australians are really welcoming, from my experience everyone was really welcoming and helpful … so I think in time they will get over that.”

Despite learning about Australia from an uncle who lived in Perth for many years, Ms Anjer-Koushian still hit a few hurdles adjusting to the culture here.

“Sometimes being straightforward and being honest in my culture is not always that acceptable, you always turn around and you’re not straight to the point,” she said.

“Whereas here people don’t go around and around, they just tell you straight what their opinion is or what they think about a topic.

Volunteering to help others adjust

Now she is giving back — volunteering with the Australian Red Cross’s new Humanitarian Settlement Program to help new refugees acclimatize and understand how to thrive in their adopted country.

Of the new refugees arriving in Australia in 2016-2017, more than 6,500 were fleeing the Iraq-Syrian conflict, and many more are expected to come from the region in future years.

Red Cross migration support programs manager Vicki Mau said people who came to Australia through the humanitarian resettlement program had often been through extremely difficult experiences, but that also meant they were incredibly resilient.

“What we’re really trying to do is make it a smooth process for them,” she said.

Source: Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).

Link: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-10-29/extraordinary-intake-syrian-iraq-refugees-12000/9090308.

US-backed forces celebrate fall of IS ‘capital,’ Raqqa

October 18, 2017

BEIRUT (AP) — U.S.-backed Syrian forces celebrated in the devastated streets of Raqqa on Tuesday after gaining control of the northern city that once was the heart of the Islamic State’s self-styled caliphate, dealing a major defeat to the extremist group that has seen its territory shrink ever smaller since summer.

Militants took over the vibrant metropolis on the Euphrates River in 2014, transforming it into the epicenter of their brutal rule, where opponents were beheaded and terror plots hatched. It took thousands of bombs dropped by the U.S.-led coalition and more than four months of grueling house-to-house battles for the Syrian Democratic Forces to recapture Raqqa, marking a new chapter in the fight against the group whose once vast territory has been reduced to a handful of towns in Syria and Iraq.

“Liberating Raqqa is a triumph for humanity, especially women,” who suffered the most under IS, said Ilham Ahmed, a senior member of the SDF political wing. “It is a salvation for the will to live an honorable life. It is a defeat to the forces of darkness,” said Ahmed, speaking to The Associated Press from Ein Issa, just north of Raqqa.

Fighters from the SDF celebrated by chanting and honking their horns as they spun doughnuts with their Humvees and armored personnel carriers, and hoisting yellow SDF flags around Naim, or Paradise Square.

The infamous square was the site of public beheadings and other killings by the militants. Bodies and severed heads would be displayed there for days, mounted on posts and labeled with their alleged crimes, according to residents who later dubbed it “Hell Square.”

Crumbled and flattened buildings stood behind the fighters as they drove around the square, a sign of the massive destruction the city has suffered since the militants took over. It was in Naim Square that the extremists paraded tanks and military hardware in 2014 in a chilling show of force that foretold what would come.

SDF commanders later visited Raqqa’s sports stadium, which IS had turned into a notorious prison. Dozens of militants who refused to surrender made their last stand earlier Tuesday holed up inside. “Immortal martyrs!” chanted the men and women in SDF uniforms, saluting their comrades who died battling for the city. According to the coalition, about 1,100 SDF forces have been killed fighting IS in Raqqa and Deir el-Zour.

“Military operations in Raqqa have ceased and we are now combing the city for sleeper cells and cleaning it from land mines,” Brig. Gen. Talal Sillo told the AP earlier in the day. A formal declaration that Raqqa has fallen would be made soon, once troops finish their clearing operations, Sillo said.

Col. Ryan Dillon, the Baghdad-based spokesman for the U.S.-led coalition, was more cautious, saying only that “more than 90 percent” of Raqqa had been cleared. He estimated about 100 IS militants were still in the city and said he expects the SDF to encounter “pockets of resistance” during the clearing operations.

The battle of Raqqa has killed more than 1,000 civilians, many of them in coalition airstrikes in recent months, and displaced tens of thousands of people who face the prospect of returning to ruined homes. The coalition and residents who managed to escape accused the militants of using civilians as human shields and tried to stop them from leaving the city.

In a reminder of the humanitarian catastrophe unleashed by the fighting, the international charity group Save the Children said that camps housing tens of thousands of people who fled Raqqa are “bursting at the seams.”

It said about 270,000 people from Raqqa are still in critical need of aid. With the high level of destruction reported in and around Raqqa, most families have nowhere to go and are likely to be in camps for months or years. The World Food Program said it was ready to send teams as soon as the area was secure enough.

Ahmed, the SDF official, said the hardest part will be administering and rebuilding Raqqa. The group has appointed a civilian administration of locals to rebuild the city, but larger questions loom. The SDF is a multi-ethnic force, but its Kurdish leadership harbors ambitions of autonomous rule over a Kurdish region in Syria that now includes the Arab-majority Raqqa, leading to concerns of a possible backlash among the city’s Sunni Arab population.

Brett McGurk, the top U.S. presidential envoy to the anti-IS coalition, arrived in northern Syria and met Tuesday with members of the Raqqa Civil Council and members of the reconstruction committee. He also met tribal leaders and urged them to work closely with the SDF, preventing the government of Syrian President Bashar Assad from using any divisions between them, according to the Furat FM, an activist-run news agency.

An immediate challenge was clearing Raqqa of thousands of land mines and booby traps that have killed returning civilians and senior SDF commanders in recent days. One of those killed Monday was the head of the internal security force affiliated with the SDF.

Another challenge for the troops is searching the tunnels that were dug by the militants around the city, Dillon said. “This will take some time, to say that the city is completely clear,” he told AP. “We still suspect that there are still (IS) fighters that are within the city in small pockets.”

The loss of Raqqa will deprive the militants of a major hub for recruitment and planning, Dillon said, because the city attracted hundreds of foreign fighters and was a place where attacks in the Middle East and Europe were planned. The militants remain active in Syria, he said, farther south around the eastern province of Deir el-Zour.

In recent months, the Islamic State has steadily lost ground in Iraq and Syria, including Iraq’s second-largest city of Mosul. It has also lost major territory to Syrian government forces who have been marching against the group in a simultaneous but separate offensive, mainly in Deir el-Zour province.

Syria’s state news agency said government forces and their Russian and Iranian-backed allies captured the Deir el-Zour villages of Mouhassan, Bouomar and Bouleil that were once extremist strongholds. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights also reported that government forces now control more than 90 percent of the city of Deir el-Zour, where a major offensive is underway to capture remaining IS-held neighborhoods.

The battle for Raqqa began in June and the SDF met with stiff resistance from the militants. It began its final assault on Sunday after nearly 300 IS fighters surrendered. Naim Square was captured Monday.

The force seized the hospital Tuesday, taking down the last black IS flag, according to the Kurdish-run Hawar news agency. A video from Hawar showed the clashes around the hospital, which appeared riddled with bullets and partly blackened from a fire.

Associated Press writer Bassem Mroue in Beirut and National Security Writer Robert Burns in Washington contributed to this report.

Tens of thousands commemorate Arafat in Gaza

2017-11-11

GAZA CITY – Tens of thousands of Palestinians gathered in Gaza on Saturday to commemorate the death of veteran leader Yasser Arafat in the first such memorial in the Hamas-run territory since 2007.

The anniversary event was billed as a show of national unity after the Islamists of Hamas struck a reconciliation agreement last month with the rival Fatah movement founded and led by Arafat until his death in 2004.

The deal, which is supposed to see Hamas cede civil control of Gaza to the Palestinian Authority led by current Fatah leader Mahmud Abbas by December 1, could end years of bitter division between the rival factions.

Tens of thousands of people from across the Gaza Strip poured into Saraya Square in Gaza City from early morning, hours before the keynote speeches were due to be delivered.

Organizers said more than 100,000 people were in attendance.

Participants waved Palestinian flags and placards calling for unity, as well as pictures of both Arafat and Abbas.

In a pre-recorded speech broadcast on large screens, Abbas, who has not visited Gaza since his allies were thrown out by Hamas in 2007, hailed his predecessor’s legacy.

“Our Palestinian people, who have always loved you as a great leader, still have that love, respect and loyalty.”

Abbas said the Palestinians were pushing ahead to seal reconciliation and to achieve Arafat’s “dream… for freedom, sovereignty and independence on our Palestinian national soil”.

“There is no state in Gaza and there is no state without Gaza,” he said, stressing that the Palestinian people were “united” and “refuse divisions”.

Gaza is waiting

Participants at the rally also said the event underlined the need, now more than ever, for Palestinians to unite.

“Today is a day for loyalty, unity and reconciliation. We say to the president and the government: Your sons in Fatah are waiting for your support of Gaza,” said 20-year-old Shukri Antar.

Rania Barbekh, 50, who was carrying a Fatah flag and a picture of Abbas, said she and her son had arrived at the square at 7 am from their home in Khan Yunis in the south of the Gaza Strip.

“We are all with Abu Ammar,” she said, referring to Arafat by his Arabic nickname. “From this festival, we want Fatah and Hamas to unite against the enemy.”

Hamas seized control of Gaza in a near civil war with Fatah in 2007 amid bitter recriminations over the Islamists’ landslide victory in parliamentary elections the previous year.

The last commemoration in the territory of Arafat’s death was held just months afterwards and ended in clashes between the rival factions.

Fatah has held other events in Gaza since 2007, including a major celebration in 2013, but Hamas has often suppressed its activities.

On Thursday, several thousand people attended a smaller Arafat anniversary event in Gaza organised by Fatah.

On Friday, hundreds of people took part in a “national unity marathon” organised by the Palestine Athletic Federation to support reconciliation between the rival factions.

Tawfiq Abu Naim, head of Hamas’s internal security forces in Gaza, said he had instructed them to protect and support Saturday’s commemoration, which he described as a “festival of unity”.

Source: Middle East Online.

Link: http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=85886.

New multi-specialty medical center inaugurated at Zaatari camp

By JT

Nov 16, 2017

AMMAN — Deputizing for HRH Princess Muna, Minister of Health Mahmoud Sheyyab on Wednesday inaugurated the Syrian American Medical Society (SAMS) new multi-specialty medical center at Zaatari refugee camp, a SAMS statement said.

With this new enterprise, SAMS, a leading medical relief organisation with offices in the US, Syria and its neighboring countries, in addition to Greece, provides dignified and high-quality healthcare to refugees living in the camp.

SAMS President Ahmad Tarakji and SAMS Foundation Chairman Amjad Rass, attended the opening ceremony at Zaatari Camp, highlighting SAMS’s role in providing healthcare to refugees living inside and outside the camp.

The SAMS multi-specialty medical center will address the vast and urgent health care needs of 80,000 refugees currently living in Zaatari camp, the world’s largest Syrian refugee camp, according to the statement.

Many refugees in the camp suffer from chronic and communicable illnesses and emotional trauma that have gone untreated due to a lack of consistent, specialized medical services. The new medical center is expected to provide 7,700 medical services per month, treating up to 350 patients on a daily basis, in various areas of specialty care, including cardiology, neurology, pediatrics, gynaecology, dental and orthopedics, as well as those pertaining to primary and preventative care.

At the front lines of crisis relief in Syria and its neighboring countries since the Syrian conflict erupted in 2011, SAMS has provided medical services in Zaatari for over three years, regularly heading medical missions in the area to offer free, quality care to refugees, with 95,637 medical services offered inside Zaatari Camp in 2016, the statement continued.

“The new medical center has been carefully designed to address the growing need for ongoing, quality medical care to refugees, following the recent closure of a number of health facilities in the camp. We are proud to announce that our center will be fully equipped to focus not only on treatment, but also on prevention, wellness and specialty care,” Tarakji was quoted in the statement as saying. “We are confident that the facility will serve as a beacon of hope and a place of respite for the camp’s residents, and in so doing, help provide them a future they can look forward to.”

Source: The Jordan Times.

Link: http://jordantimes.com/news/local/new-multispecialty-medical-centre-inaugurated-zaatari-camp.

EXCLUSIVE: Jordan fears ‘turmoil’ as Saudis rush to embrace Israel

David Hearst

Thursday 16 November 2017

Saudi Arabia is bypassing Jordan in its headlong rush to normalize relations with Israel, offering concessions on Palestinian refugees which could endanger the stability of the Hashemite kingdom, and compromise its status as the custodian of the holy sites in Jerusalem, a senior official close to the royal court in Amman has told Middle East Eye.

The official, speaking on condition of anonymity, accused Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman of treating Jordan with contempt. “He deals with Jordanians and the Palestinian Authority as if they are the servants and he is the master and we have to follow what he does. He neither consults nor listens to us,” the official said.

The alarm bells went off in Amman following semi-official leaks suggesting that Saudi Arabia was ready to surrender the Palestinian right of return in exchange for putting Jerusalem under international sovereignty as part of a Middle East peace deal that would facilitate the creation of a Saudi-Israeli alliance to confront Iran.

Such a deal would compromise the special status of Jordan as the custodian of the Haram al-Sharif, as stated in the peace treaty Jordan struck with Israel in 1994.

“Half the population of Jordan are Palestinians and if there is official talk in Riyadh about ending the right of return, this will cause turmoil within the kingdom. These are sensitive issues both for Jordanians from the East Bank and Palestinians,” the official said.

Jordanian backlash

In fact, 65 percent of the population of Jordan are Palestinian, mostly from the occupied West Bank. They have Jordanian citizenship and access to medical care, but they are under-represented in parliament, and have little presence in the Jordanian army and security services.

Furthermore, any attempt to give the Palestinians more rights in Jordan would provoke a backlash among the Jordanian population, the official observed.

He said any final status deal involving Palestinian refugees would have to include a compensation package to Jordan, which the kingdom would expect to receive as a state.

On the deal itself, the Jordanian official said that what was on offer to Mahmoud Abbas, the president of the Palestinian Authority, was worse than before.

“He (MbS) is concerned about the normalization of the Saudi relationship with Israel and he does not care about anything else. He needs a fig leaf to start off this normalization,” the official said.

A separate Western source in contact with some Saudi princes independently confirmed the importance of Israel as a factor behind a wave of recent arrests in Riyadh targeting princes, business tycoons and other influential Saudis.

He said several of the people arrested under the guise of an anti-corruption campaign had acted as “gatekeepers for Saudi funding” going to Israel. He suggested that MbS wanted to keep a monopoly of these contacts for himself. For this reason, he questioned whether those arrested would be put on public trial, or whether there would be secret trials.

This source dismissed the notion that what was a taking place in Saudi was a genuine anti-corruption drive: “The Saudi family do not rule Saudi Arabia. They own it. That is their view. They created the country. They own it, and therefore they cannot be corrupt.”

The Royal Court in Amman is also concerned by the pressure being applied on Jordan to join an anti-Iran campaign and the potentially dire consequences of what it considers “reckless” Saudi policies.

“Things in Syria are going to the benefit of Iran and its allies. The Jordanian approach was to try to open channels with Iran and Russia and to calm down the Iranians and have some sort of agreement in the south,” MEE’s source said.

“But the Saudis are in full confrontation mode, destabilizing Lebanon. If Iran wants to retaliate, it could retaliate across the whole region, which could affect Jordan directly and that is the last thing Jordan would want them to do.”

When pressed by the Saudis, Jordan scaled back its diplomatic relations with Qatar, but notably did not cut them as Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt did on the day the blockade was announced. Jordan did, however, close the office of Al Jazeera, the Qatari television network which Saudi has called on Doha to shut down.

Unlike the Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, King Abdullah has not been invited to go to Riyadh to express these frustrations in person. He has visited Bahrain, but went home shortly after.

Broken promises

The third source of Jordanian concern about the way Saudi is behaving is economic.

Jordan has lost money as a result of the regional boycott of Qatar, and is currently losing income it earned through the transit of goods. This is a result of the re-opening of a crossing between Saudi and Iraq at Arar, a crossing that had been closed for 27 years since Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990.

Before Arar opened, all trade from Iraq passed through Jordan. With the opening of Arar, Iraq will start to use Saudi ports in the Red Sea to export to Europe, instead of the Jordanian port of Aqaba.

There is anger in the royal palace about promises of aid from Saudi Arabia, but no signs of the cash arriving in its bank accounts.

A separate Jordanian source told MEE: “The Jordanian king and the Jordanian authority are angry about promises made by the Saudis  to compensate Jordan for its loss of income with Qatar, and the fact that nothing has been received from them so far.”

A fourth Jordanian grievance is MbS’s recent announcement of plans to build the high-tech mega city of Neom which is set to stretch across the kingdom’s borders into Jordan and Egypt. The official said that Jordan was “not well briefed” about the project, fostering the suspicion that the primary beneficiary in the city’s construction will not be Jordan or Egypt, but Israel which has established a regional lead in high-tech exports.

He said there were “some positive comments” on the Jordanian side, but overall it reacted cautiously to the announcement.

The official doubted whether Israel would be stampeded into a war with Hezbollah and suggested that MbS had miscalculated the reaction to his offensive on Lebanon, following the Lebanese Prime Minister’s Saad Hariri’s sudden resignation in Riyadh earlier this month.

Hariri, who is a Saudi citizen with significant business interests in the country, has not yet returned to Beirut and Lebanese President Michel Aoun said on Wednesday that he believed he was being detained there.

“The analysis of Jordan is that neither Israel nor the US will go for a war, and that we Jordanians will be saddled with the consequences of a direct confrontation with Iran and we will pay the consequences for this,” the official said.

Source: Middle East Eye.

Link: http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/exclusive-jordan-braces-turmoil-saudis-rush-embrace-israel-1491957420.

Jordan plans new city to ease crowding and congestion

Monday 6 November 2017

Jordan has announced plans to build a new city east of the capital Amman in order to ease rising population density and traffic congestion.

The project to build the city some 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) from Amman was part of a drive to stimulate the economy and attract long-term investment, the government said in a statement published on Sunday.

Touted as “environmentally friendly, sustainable and smart”, the new city would be built on a major highway that links Jordan to Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

The project was aimed at finding “drastic solutions to rising population density and traffic congestion” in Amman and the northeastern city of Zarqa, said the statement carried by the official Petra news agency.

Amman is home to four million people while 1.3 million make up the population of Zarqa and, according to the statement, their combined populations are due to reach 10 million by 2050.

The project would “invest in clean and renewable sources of energy and water treatment” as well as provide affordable housing, the statement said.

It would be built in five phases with the first one ready by 2030 and the last expected to be completed in 2050.

“State institutions and ministries will be moved to the new city throughout the project’s various stages,” it added.

Cash-strapped Jordan hopes the project will attract private and foreign investors.

The tiny desert kingdom is devoid of natural resources and has been severely affected by wars in its neighbors Syria and Iraq with refugees from both countries seeking haven in Jordan.

The United Nations says Jordan is hosting more than 650,000 refugees from Syria alone, while the kingdom puts their number at 1.4 million.

Source: Middle East Eye.

Link: http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/jordan-plans-new-city-ease-crowding-and-congestion-797860535.

Advertisements